In November 1938, the Nazis launched a violent attack on German Jews on the night of broken glass (crystal night). It led to the death of a number of Jews and the destruction of property. This helped turn British public opinion against Hitler`s Germany. September 15, 1938: Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister, heads to Hitler in the mountain yard and accepts that Czechoslovakia cede to Germany all regions of 50% of the German Sudetenland. The British and French convinced the Czechs to accept. September 15, 1938 – Chamberlain`s first meeting with Hitler, on September 12, 1938, Hitler delivers a speech in which he attacks Czechoslovakia. September 29 and 30, 1938 – The colony of Munich in early 1938, the head of the German Sudetenland Konrad Henlein deplores the mistreatment of the Sudeten Germans by Czechs. October 1938: There were more signs of change in public opinion. The Conservatives lost two by-elections. They retained a third seat in Parliament in Oxford, with a very small majority. Appetite had been one of the main themes during the elections. September 29-30, 1938 – Britain, France, Germany and Italy meet in Munich. It was essential that Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union were not present.
The four countries accepted the German occupation of the Sudetenland from 1 to 10 October. German troops occupy the Sudetenland. Britain and France have adopted a policy of appeasement. Neville Chamberlain returned to Britain and claimed that he had made peace in our time. However, after the agreement, Britain and France accelerated their own weapons plans. Chamberlain`s assertion proved to be a false hope, for in the year following the end of world war, the Second World War had begun. Chamberlain made the Munich agreement with Hitler to avoid war, but in the year following September 1938, several factors put him under pressure to abandon his policy of appeasement: this clip could be used as an entry for a lesson in appeasement. Students could be asked to list Chamberlain`s reasons for the policy of appeasement and why there was opposition.
The students were able to establish a chronology of the events of 1938 and Chamberlain`s visits to Hitler. September 22, 1938 – Chamberlain managed to convince the President of Czechoslovakia, Edvard Beneé, to accept Germany`s demands. Chamberlain meets Hitler in Bad Godesberg with the confidence that the crisis is over. Hitler, however, had changed his mind and wanted the Sudetenland until 1 October. The talks are collapsing and the fear of war in Europe is now real. Chamberlain convinced Mussolini, the Italian dictator, to hold a conference in Munich to discuss the issue of the Sudetenland. The Munich agreement was concluded only with the Sudeten Germans. Of the 2 million Germans who live in Bohemia and Moravia, he said nothing.
Hitler moved to place it under German control. Winston Churchill attacked appeasement in October 1938 as a defeat without war. There were also a growing number of other Conservatives (Anthony Eden, Harold McMillan) who were willing to criticize Chamberlain`s policies. In September 1938 the Munich agreement gave Hitler the Sudetenland. The Czechs were not asked what they thought. Hitler occupied Sudentenland the following month. May 30, 1938 – Hitler orders the destruction of Czechoslovakia by October 1. Events surrounding appeasement, including Chamberlain`s motivation and Churchill`s opposition to politics, are under intense investigation.